Chapter Two : Mankind- A Shiite Perspective

بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم

A) Past and Present of Mankind- A Historical and Social Perspective

1) We believe that Hazrat Adam (a.s.) is a very honorable and chosen creation of Allah, whom He sent to earth a few thousand years ago. Allah chose him as His caliph and messenger on the earth and granted him numerous sons and descendants.
2) We believe that prior to Hazrat Adam (a.s.), there were creatures that inhabited the earth, some of which resembled mankind and, in the words of traditions, were called as Nasnaas. But they spread mischief in the earth and shed blood, as a result of which, Allah punished them and terminated their life on the planet.
3) We believe that the human beings living on the earth today are from the progeny of Hazrat Adam (a.s.), and not from Nasnaas (who are today called as Genus Homo (Such as Neanderthals). Allah punished them and terminated their life on earth. Instead, He chose Hazrat Adam (a.s.), named him as the chosen one of Allah (صفی الله)and made the children
of Adam (a.s.) i.e. humans, as the inhabitants and inheritors of this planet.

Messengers of Allah ; The Forewarners!

4) We believe that in different eras, Allah the Almighty selected some people from the progeny of Hazrat Adam (a.s.) and sent them as forewarners to human nations in order to restrain them from destruction, mischief and oppression. These messengers reminded the people that if they (people) believe in Allah and fear his warnings (i.e. they acquire piety), the doors of blessings and mercy from the higher world would be opened for them. But if they indulge in mischief, bloodshed, oppression and disobedience, they would not be safe from Allah’s chastisement. Often, like those who preceded them, divine wrath would be inflicted on them, leading to their annihilation.

Examples of Allah’s Punishments

5) We believe that most of the nations of humanity, due to their scarce attention to warnings of divine messengers and the excesses, oppression and tyranny committed by them, were destroyed by divine punishment.
• Some of them faced a heavenly thunder and were charred to destruction (Fussilat [41:17] ; Adh-Dhariyat [51:44])
• A killing shriek from the heavens came down on a group of them and a sudden fear seized them all, in a way that they were scorched to death in their places (Hud [11:67] ; Al Mu’minun [23:41] ; Ya-Sin [36:29).
• Some had to encounter a storm and drowned in frightening floods. An army of beasts and animals (like lice, frogs, and mice) attacked some and the power of life was snatched from them (Surah Al-A’raf [7:133]).
• Some were consumed by gigantic waves of rivers and destroyed (Hud [11:43]).
• For some, the earth quivered beneath their feet, split and all were swallowed by its wrath (Al-Ankabut [29:40] ; An-Nahl [16:45]).
• Heavenly stones rained on some, killed and buried them beneath its huge pile (Hud [11:82] ; Al-Hijr [15:74].
• On the order of Allah, birds threw hot and burning stones on the heads of some and killed them (Al-Fil [105:1-5]).
• Black and red, severe and strong winds blew on some, annihilating their clans and dynasties (Al-Ankabut [29:40]). From each of the above groups and nations, only a handful of righteous believers remained, and from these survivors only did the new generations of humans emerge.

Believers: The Survived Ones

6) We believe that at the end of every era of human history, only those who refrained from oppression and tyranny, believed in divine wrath and its suddenness (i.e. the pious ones), survived. They were not among those, who did not take the warnings of Allah seriously due to His patience and the prolonged respite granted by Him, to humanity. Instead, they made the best use of this opportunity to gain nearness to Allah, establish justice and equity and perform good deeds. Our Era and The Bright Future of Mankind
7) We believe that like other eras of history, we too are living in one era, and must keep away from disobedience, oppression and tyranny. We must involve ourselves in divine worship and establish truth and justice. For, Allah (through His messengers) has warned the oppressors and unbelievers of today that His wrath will be inflicted on them without prior warning. This divine warning will be fulfilled through the thunder-like revolution of Imam Mahdi (a.t.f.s.), by which, the oppressors, unbelievers and deniers will be destroyed and the righteous servants of Allah will inherit the earth (Al-Qasas [28:5]1 ; An-Nur [24:55]2 ).
8) We believe that after the universal revolution of Imam Mahdi (a.t.f.s.), the world will not have any more governments of oppressors and unbelievers and the believers will inhabit the earth for years together.

End of the World

9) We believe that after the era of rule by the believers and good-doers, the world will come to an end. Allah the Almighty will wrap up the expanse of the heavens and the earth and everything will be destroyed3 and no animal or living being will remain (Ibrahim [14:48] ; Al-Ma’arij [70:9,10] ; Al-Muzzammil [73:14]. At this juncture, Allah the Almighty will ask,
‘To whom does the kingdom belong on this day?’ He Himself will answer, ‘To Allah, the One, the Irresistible (the Subduer (of all), the All-paramount’ (Ghafir [40:16]). On that day, all the sinners would have been destroyed and nobody would have the power to utter a word before Allah, the One, the Subduer.

10) We believe that after the destruction of the world and whatever is in it, there will be a halt in creation. After this brief pause, Allah will begin anew the creation of the universe. The hallmark of this new creation will be that good and bad, virtuous and evil, will be distinctly separate from each other. All that is good and virtuous will be lined on one side
and all that is evil and vice will be gathered on the other side.


11) We believe that during Resurrection, all the human beings will be raised to life again and be presented in the court of divine justice (AlMu’minun [23:16] ; Al-Kahf [18:105] ; Al Anbiya [21:47]4 ; Al-Jathiya [45:26]). It is there that they will be probed and questioned for their past deeds. On the basis of divine justice, some of them will be consigned to the flames of hell and punishment, while due to His grace, some of them will carried to eternal paradise. Both the groups, in their special places, will see their good and bad deeds respectively, and will be in the company of those resembling them.
12) We believe that those who will enter paradise will never be deprived of its fantastic bounties and will reside in it forever. On the other hand, some of those who will go to hell will be ultimately purified, be subject to divine mercy due to the intercession of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) and enter paradise. But some inmates of the hell will never be allowed to come out of it because in this world, they had intended to bear enmity against Allah forever, stood before Him in rebellion and created mischief in the earth. On the basis of Allah’s word, we believe that if Allah relieves them of His wrath and chastisement, they will continue their misdeeds, from which they were prohibited, as they did in the past. Surely, they are worthy of eternal punishment.

B) Past and Present of Mankind- An Individual Perspective

1) We believe that every man, who is now living, bearing a name and indication, and possessing knowledge, power and claiming to have various other perfect attributes, was absolutely non-existent at some stage of time (Al-Insan [76:1]). Neither anybody had any information about him nor was his effect or name found. We believe that it is Allah the Almighty, Who brought humans into existence from nothing. He made them taste the pleasure of “being” or “existence”, and conferred on them body, soul, power, knowledge, wisdom, freedom and other attributes and characteristics.

In Mother’s Womb

2) We believe that in the beginning of man’s creation, Allah the Almighty created his body from clay and nurtured his existence in his mother’s womb like a plant, and grew for him only that size of the body as he needs. Allah gave him skin, flesh, and bones. He granted him ears, eyes, and tongue. He bestowed him with hands, legs, and mouth. He gave him a stomach, intestines, liver, heart, veins, nerves, hair, lungs, brains, and other necessaries. (An Nahl [16:78] ; Al-i-Imran [3:6] ; Luqman [31:34]).
Yes, it is Allah, Who makes beautiful designs on the face and body of man in the heart of his mother and the darkness of the womb and sculpts him in the most excellent manner. (Creation of body and growth of man as an herb).
3) We believe that during pregnancy, Allah the Almighty breathes the soul in man, thereby granting life unto him. Through this act, Allah the Benevolent raises him from the level of an herb to the stage of an animal. That is, like animals, man becomes the possessor of life, sensation, motion, instinct, anger, and desire. In all these stages, he is devoid of knowledge and wisdom as well as ignorant and unaware about the divine grace in his existence (Al-Hajj [22:5]). (Transformation of man from the state of vegetation to the level of an animal).

Facing a New World!

4) We believe that approximately after nine months, Allah the Almighty brings man into this world from the womb of his mother. He instills his love in the hearts of his relations in a way that they are willing to bear difficulties for him with all the volition at their command. They nourish him carefully and adorn him with human attributes. During this period, the activity of the child is like that of an animal and is based on obedience and compliance. He does not know the goodness or evil of an action. In this manner, the newborn of man is far stronger than other animals. He imitates, emulates and obeys his elders. The strong and amazing sense of emulation and obedience that Allah has instilled in the child becomes the cause of his rapid growth and development, and entrance into the human society. His tongue opens up for conversation and he learns social etiquette. Yet, at this stage, he is still devoid of
understanding, comprehension, and other special characteristics. His manners are not an indication of his wisdom and intention. (The growth of conversation and social etiquette in man).

Free Will

5) We believe Allah the Almighty, along with the bounties of body and soul confers yet another endowment on man and that is his free will. After being a follower and emulator, man becomes independent and decisive. Till yesterday, unknowingly, Allah drew him towards perfection and carried him to the peaks of fortune . But, from today man must strive to move towards Allah on his own and be inclined towards the acquisition of this great fortune. (Maturity and independence in intention and decision making).

Divine Guidance (Both Internally and Externally)

6) We believe that Allah the Almighty, by conferring freedom and intention, opens the path for man to exit from the animal stage and enter into the human world. But at this stage, he is in need of the knowledge that helps him distinguish the road from the pothole and the good from the bad. Therefore, Allah the Almighty lights the lamp of intellect within him and also sends vigilant Prophets (a.s.) and Messengers (a.s.) to him externally11. That they may teach him all that he needs and encourage him to direct all the human energies that he possesses in the right way. Moreover, they warn him from misusing the faculties of his extraordinary freedom, intention and power and frighten them of the punishment of such abuse. (Entrance into the human world through benefiting from power, freedom, intellect, and revelation).


7) We believe that man, whoever he may be, whatever he may do and no matter how long he lives, ultimately he has to become old. Gradually, Allah the Almighty will take away the power of knowledge from him (Ya-Sin [36:68]). He will take away from him his intellect, consciousness, and the power to comprehend. He weakens his volition, intention and decisiveness. Once again, he becomes like a child in a way that for the simplest of tasks; he needs the help and assistance of others. (The loss of human perfection).

Passing Away and Afterward

8) We believe that after the loss of knowledge and intellect, Allah also snatches from him his soul and gradually, his body loses all its motion and sensibilities, and falls apart. (Loss of soul and animal facet and remaining in the form of a lifeless body).
9) We believe that the human body will again return to the soil, devoid of its botanical vitality and freshness. Nothing will remain of him but a handful of soil, just as his beginning was naught but a fistful of soil (Ta-Ha [20:55]) (Decomposition and return of body to soil).

Allah, Master of all Sovereignty

10) We believe that
(a) nothing belongs to man
(b) whatever is presently in his possession has been conferred on him and
(c) Allah will take back from him whatever He has given to him
And hence, he should refrain from pride, arrogance, conceit, rebellion,
egoism, self-centeredness, oppression, torturing the weak and
disobedience of his Lord. He must always ask himself6:

• Was I not the one whom Allah created from absolutely nothing?
• Was I not the one who, in the beginning, did not possess an active, beautiful and powerful body, and was in the womb of my mother like chewed meat? Thereafter, my Lord nurtured me and my mother carried the burden of my life?
• Was I not the one who did not have a soul in his body and like a lifeless shrub, could not budge from my place? Subsequently, Allah gave me soul and it was only from that time that I was counted amongst the living and moving creatures.
• Was I not the one who could not talk, ask anything from others, converse with them, sit with them and socialize with them?
Thereafter, Allah gave me the power by which I could learn to speak and be trained in social etiquette, without myself being aware of it.
• Was I not the one who was under the training, intention and orders of others? Thereafter, Allah gave me an independent personality, power and intention.
• Was I not the one who did not know how to use my intention? Thereafter, Allah granted me wisdom and knowledge. He sent down revelation on humans (Prophets), who belonged to my race, and ordered them to invite me towards Allah and all good things through encouragement and glad-tidings, dissuasion and warnings. Also, He helped me that I may enter the world of good fortune and eternal bliss with my own volition and freewill.
• Allah, Who created me and granted me body, soul, speech, etiquette, intention, freedom, wisdom, knowledge and all other necessities required for good fortune, decisiveness and actions, can He not snatch from me all the aforementioned grants, powers and faculties? Can He not take away from me whatever I know due to Him? Will this not be my fate? Ultimately, will I not die? Will not my body be decomposed into dry and rough soil?
Then, why should I be proud and why should I rebel? Why should I consider myself better than others? Why should I ignore the desire of my Lord? Why should I oppose His commands and prohibitions?
Why should I take His friends as enemies and His enemies as friends? Why should I be envious of His Messengers (a.s.) and mock at their advises and admonishments and ridicule their warnings and threats? Why should I be stubborn and belligerent in front of their commands? Why should I do all these things when I know that finally, I do not have any refuge except Allah ; When I know that Allah does not like the arrogant and proud boasters ; When I am aware that Allah loves those who are humble, modest, submissive, unassuming and forgiving?
11) We believe that Allah has put the changes and transformation of childhood, old age, life and death in man so that he may understand that his existence, its perfections and possessions did not exist eternally. Rather, he acquired these perfections and possessions long after he came into existence and ultimately he will be dispossessed of all of them. Therefore, he must not become a victim of pride and arrogance. Also, he should not forget his own poverty and need, and the grant and needlessness of his Lord (Al-Alaq [96:6 & 7]: “Yes indeed, man is surely rebellious. (6) As he considers himself independent! (7)”).
12) We believe that man should not remember Allah only at the time of death or old age. He must realize his poverty and need during his youth and days of power. Allah changes, transforms, weakens, and strengthens him even during his youth. For example,
• The Needless and Powerful Allah makes man a pauper after being wealthy and again makes him rich after his poverty.
• Allah makes man sick after he was healthy and if He so desires will restore his health for him.
• Allah, the Sustainer, makes man severely thirsty and hungry after he had quenched his thirst and satiated his hunger. Thereafter, through His sustenance, He removes his thirst and dispels his hunger.
• Allah, the Living, the Controller, forces sleep on man after a period of
awakening and consciousness in a way that he is unable to keep his eyes open and maintain the balance of his body. He awakens him again and grants him consciousness.
• Allah, the All-Knowing, the All-Powerful, suddenly puts a thought in the mind of man that converts his happiness and joy into sorrow and grief. After some time, He reconverts this sorrow into joy.
• Allah, the Mighty, the Wise, after allowing man to dominate everything and everybody, sends an army of dust, wind, water, and fire to him and renders him humble. Sometimes, He makes man bite the dust with creatures as tiny as a fly or a mosquito! (Nimrod story)
• Allah, the Powerful, the Dominant, after all the plans and designs of man, puts paid to these and destroys him by allowing the nature to kill him with a stone that falls on his head while he is walking or by making a more powerful person dominate him. Thereafter, at the pits of despair and hopelessness, he sees a ray of hope again and possibilities begin appearing before him.
Allah causes these changes in man’s life so that he may recognize himself. He may know that essentially he is nothing and that he must always value the bounties of Allah upon him. Moreover, he must not be proud and consider himself as superior over others because Allah has conferred these bounties upon him and he is not their original owner.

After Death

13) We believe that after death man will encounter conditions similar to sleep. In that state, Allah will animate the human soul and will interrogate the believers as well as the unbelievers through His angels. The souls of the good doers will be showered with Divine Mercy and Grace due to their good deeds, while the souls of the unbelievers will be afflicted with pains, punishment, and sorrow due to their misdeeds. In this world (called “Barzakh” برزخ ).the believers as well as the unbelievers will receive spiritual bounties and punishment respectively (Al-Mu’minun [23:99 & 100]). Often, some believers will be the recipients of pain and punishment due to their sins for a long period and it is only after many
years that they will get comfort and relief. The pains and pleasures of Barzakh are similar to those of dreams, which are extremely intense and severe.
14) We believe that after the destruction of this world and the commencement of the hereafter, Allah the Almighty will return the body and soul of man to him. He will resurrect his body from dust and recreate the attachment of his soul with his body. Each man will be lined up in rows comprising of people similar to him. As per their belief and deeds,
people will scale the grades of Paradise or will be thrown in the pits of Hell7 (Yunus [10:45] ; Maryam [19:85] ; Al-Mutaffifin [83:1-6] ; Al-Anbiya [21:47]).

C) Man Vis-à-vis Angels and Animals:

1) We believe that man, like other creatures, initially was a non-entity. Allah granted him body, soul and celestial perfections (like wisdom, knowledge, power and intention) and whenever He wants, He can take away from him all that He has given to him. Therefore, in comparison with other creatures, it is worthy that man be humble and not proud.
2) We believe that all the perfections of all the creatures are from Allah. Among all His creatures, He has honored the sons of His chosen Messenger, Hazrat Adam (a.s.) and granted them with exceptional reverence (Al-Isra [17:70]). Thus, man should know the value of this Divine Bounty and lofty personality.
3) We believe that humans, from the aspects of nature (body and soul) are similar to animals and consequently, they are influenced by their needs and natural inclinations and instincts.
4) We believe that humans, from the aspect of ethereal and divine aspects, (wisdom, knowledge, power, freedom and dominance over nature) are akin to pure angels of Allah. Hence, they can distinguish between good and bad, act on pure and good deeds and overcome his natural and carnal inclinations and instincts.
5) Are humans superior or inferior to angels and animals?
We believe that:
• Despite the presence of wisdom and intellect, when human beings become captives of their animal desires, they are worse than animals.
• But, if they follow their intellect, despite the presence of carnal desires and basic instincts, they are superior to angels.
6) Why has Allah the Almighty granted the celestial aspect to man? We believe that Allah the Almighty has granted celestial and subtle aspects to man for the following reasons:
a. So that He may shower His Mercy on man and draw him near unto Himself. (So that man may find divine knowledge and power and with the help of these two, he may perform divine works, recognize Allah better and gain eternal life in Paradise).

b. That He may make the angels realize the position and status of His chosen servants. (That notwithstanding the presence of natural needs and animal desires, he follows the light of his Lord).
c. That by honoring his sons, He may show His respect for Hazrat Adam (a.s.). (People should realize that they are sons of Allah’s Prophet and hence, have received special attention from Him).
d. That He may open the way of worship for man and may complete His argument on the rebels and the false claimants).

7) Why has Allah the Almighty granted the barbaric facet to man?
We believe that Allah the Almighty has granted man the barbaric facet for the following reasons:
a. That He may examine mankind and only they may attain the lofty status of humanity (heavenly kingdom and freedom in Paradise) who can overpower the unreasonable and improper desires of their souls.
b. That He may make man realize his need, poverty and weakness and hence, he should not be proud. (That is, man should understand that his celestial aspects are not his original possessions. Rather, they are Allah’s conferment. If he is knowledgeable, powerful, needless and self-sufficient on account of his celestial aspects, it is Allah, Who has granted him these, just as He makes him needy, poor, afflicted and pauper through his animal facets).
8) How essential is it for man to be attentive to his celestial aspects?
• We believe that if man is not attentive towards his celestial aspects, he has, in fact, ignored the special bounties of Allah upon him. He has wasted these gifts through his impolite attitude and ingratitude, thereby becoming eligible for punishment, being far from Allah and falling to levels far beneath barbarism.
• We believe that if man is mindful towards his celestial aspects and overpowers the animal facets, he has valued the bounties of Allah and has become eligible for an eternal life in Paradise, kingdom and His ever-increasing bounties.
9) How essential is it for man to be attentive to his animal aspects?
• We believe that his animal aspects are essential for man. The human body is like his mount and hence for his material presence in this world as well as the hereafter, it is essential that man should have a physical body. So, he must strive to protect it and ensure its safety.• We believe that being excessively attentive to this mount (body) should not result in this mount riding man himself. In other words, the animal aspect must not be allowed to dominate his celestial facet.
10) What are the ways in which man can overpower his animal aspects and become celestial?
a) Being attentive to the Greatness and Power of Allah, observing His sanctity and seeking help from Him. “And for him who fears to stand before his Lord are two gardens.” (Ar-Rahman [55:46])
b) Being mindful to the insignificance and lowliness of this world and the greatness of the celestial bounties of Allah.
c) Protecting and preserving the gift of intellect (عقل)and requesting Allah to increase the grant of wisdom and knowledge (علم).
d) Obeying the commands of wisdom and continuous presence in the sphere of humanity.
e) Being attentive to the power and attention granted by Allah to man
and feeling a sense of responsibility and answerability towards one’s action.
f) Knowledge of the inordinate and ugly animal facets and keeping away from them. (Controlling the mount (body)).
g) Being mindful of the rewards and punishments which Allah has determined for various human actions and for overpowering the animal aspects, and to consider these as real.
h) Sitting with those who have become celestial and belong to the hereafter, trying to emulate them and acting upon their advises and admonishments. Moreover, to forsake those who belong to this world and have become barbaric, avoiding any similarity with them and not lending an ear to their evil whisperings, insinuations and instigation.
11) What are the evil animal characteristics that need to be overpowered?
• We believe that following are some of the evil animal characteristics. Divine knowledge and wisdom advise us to refrain from these. It is

necessary that anybody who is attentive to the aforementioned ways and methods, should overpower these evil characteristics to be labeled
as a perfect man:
a. Excessive eating.
b. Excessive sleeping.
c. Cowardice.
d. Shamelessness and non-discipline.
e. Barbarism and animalism.
f. Greed and avarice.
g. Uncleanness.
h. Laziness.
i. Wretchedness and meanness.
j. Infirmity in will and allegiance (to make ourselves as toys in the hands of others. For example, to allow ourselves to be influenced by the provocative propaganda, films and music of others).
k. Egoism or self-centeredness (that is, to devour a corpse like wild animals, without caring for the near ones and relatives).
l. Quarreling and dispute.
m. Ingratitude.
n. Impatience.
o. Transgression
p. Miserliness.

C) Man Vis-à-vis Jinns and Satan’s Ancient Enmity with Man:

1) We believe that of those who resided on the earth before man was a group of Jinns. In that time, the earth was in their possession and control. They spread mischief and bloodshed in the earth. Therefore, they encountered divine wrath and were deprived of a normal life on earth. We believe that the Jinns were not Allah’s chosen race and group.
2) We believe that Iblis was from the Jinns. As opposed to the other Jinns, he did not commit mischief and perpetrate sins. Rather, apparently he was a very good worshipper and abstentious in approach. Like others, he was not a rebel, disobedient and arrogant. He placed his head in continuous prostration of Allah and bore great difficulties in the obedience of his Lord. Of course, this expression of humility and submission was merely apparent. In his heart, he considered himself as the greatest and best servant of Allah. Instead of thinking himself to be indebted to Allah, he regarded Allah as being under his obligation. He did not want to accept that if Allah’s Grace did not encompass him, he would never get the opportunity of His worship, the ability to forsake His disobedience and he would never gain proximity to Him. But, this pride, arrogance and self-centeredness was not known to anybody except Allah. The angels, looking at his apparent, praised and lauded
3) We believe that when Allah the Almighty drove the Jinns out of the earth due to their misdeeds, He excluded Iblis from His wrath. Rather, He granted him a place amongst the angels, where he was accorded great honor and respect, because there was no weakness or laziness in his worship. The angels were a group of creatures who did not possess an iota of inclination towards evil in them. Due to Allah’s grace, they always strove to implement His commands and were given immense knowledge. In this situation, some of the angels presumed that Iblis being a chosen servant of Allah, who has come out of every examination with flying colors, would never disobey Allah, although this was not the reality.
4) We believe that after granting Iblis a place of honor amongst the angels, Allah the Almighty decided to bring forth another creation on the earth and to test them like those before them. Allah informed the angels about the same: ”When your Lord said to the angels, ‘Indeed I am going to place a successor on earth,’” (Al-Baqara [2:30]). A
group of angels, who were aware of the mischief and bloodshed of the previous inhabitants of the earth, disliked the idea of yet another group of creatures being brought up to disobey Allah and rip apart His sanctity. Hence, they pleaded and objected in the presence of the Almighty, imploring, “O Allah! Do You intend to create those who will spread mischief in the earth and shed blood? While we (infallible angels along with Your honorable servant Iblis) worship You in the best possible manner. We glorify You, praise You and keep away from all evils.” (Al-Baqara [2:30]). Allah the Almighty dismissed their petition saying, “Surely, I know what you know not.” The protesting angels realized that Allah had a concealed and hidden reason/wisdom in His action and sensed that they should not have questioned their Lord’s decision in the very first place. Thus, they repented and pleaded, “O Allah! You are free from all mistakes and errors and we do not know anything except whatever You have
taught us.” (Al-Baqara [2:32]).
5) We believe that some of the things which Allah knew and the angels were ignorant about it were as follows:

A) The internal impurity of Iblis

Some of the angels were thinking that the chosen servant of Allah, who had passed and would pass all examinations and tests with flying colors was Iblis, who was from the Jinns. But Allah was aware that if He would test Iblis in arrogance and jealousy, he would certainly fail. Instead of repenting and realizing his mistake, he will ascribe injustice to Allah and proceed to become the eternal enemy of Allah.

B) The unparalleled infallibility of Hazrat Adam (a.s.) and the chosen ones from his progeny
A group of angels were under the impression that anybody other than Iblis, who would be placed on earth and given power and freedom by Allah, will spread mischief and bloodshed. But Allah the Almighty knew that the father of humanity, Hazrat Adam (a.s.) and many of his believing and righteous sons would not be like this. Rather, they will always worship Allah and not forsake their belief in Him and continue to be righteous even in the most trying of circumstances. Allah the Almighty was aware that Hazrat Adam (a.s.) and the pious ones from his generation will be among His most honorable servants and their status and position will be higher and more venerable than all the other creatures including the proximate angels of Allah. He was aware of the superiority of Hazrat Adam (a.s.) and his progeny while the complaining angels were completely ignorant about it. They thought that if Allah granted to each of His pure creatures, power and ability like the previous inhabitants of the earth, give the earth in their possession and test them severely, all of them would indulge in oppression and destruction.
6) We believe that finally Allah created the body of Hazrat Adam (a.s.) and blew His spirit of life (حيات روح) in him. He taught him His special knowledge and raised him to the lofty status of humanity. Thereafter, He said to the angels, “This is My chosen servant higher than all of
you and I have placed My best creation in his progeny. Now, O angels and inhabitants of the heavens, all of you on My command, prostrate before him due to his reverence and the chosen and infallible ones from his progeny.” (Al-Hijr [15:28-31]).
It was then that all the angels prostrated before Adam (a.s.) except Iblis, who bore jealousy towards him and considered himself to be superior to him, thereby exposing his hidden disbelief. He argued, “O Allah! If You order me to perform Salat for You for a thousand years and to race ahead of all Your servants, I will do it. But don’t ask me to prostrate before the one whom You have given him and his progeny precedence over me. You have created him from clay while You have created me from fire. He is lower than me and I am higher than him.” Allah the Almighty retorted, “I intend to be worshipped as I want and not as you want.” Thus, Iblis was driven out of Allah’s celestial kingdom and his disbelief was manifested for one and all. Iblis, the proximate, was converted into the accursed and discarded Satan, bearing immense malice against Hazrat Adam (a.s.) and his progeny. He thought unto himself that he would deceive Adam (a.s.) and all his children and prove to Allah that He had erred in selecting Adam (a.s.) and had dealt with Iblis unjustly. Thereafter, to put his plans into action, he requested Allah neither to punish him nor to jail him instantly and to grant him respite till the Day of Judgement. Allah complied with his request. Satan swore by Allah that he would bear enmity against all humans and attempt to deviate them from the right path. But Allah made it clear for him that he would never succeed in deviating His sincere and pure servants or make them His enemies and his friends (Al-Hijr [15:34-42]). In this manner, Iblis (or the accursed Satan) became the sworn enemy of mankind.
7) We believe that Allah the Almighty replaced Satan with Hazrat Adam (a.s.) in His celestial kingdom and near heaven. Later, He created for Adam (a.s.) a spouse who would be his companion and confidante. Allah then permitted Adam (a.s.) and his spouse (named Hawwa (Eve)) to enjoy all the bounties of Paradise but not to approach a tree as an exception. Because that tree was for a special group from the progeny of Adam (a.s.) who were not yet born and their position was much higher than that of Adam (a.s.). This group comprised of Hazrat Muhammad Mustafa (s.a.w.a.) the seal of the Prophets and his chosen Ahle Bait (a.s.). Allah warned Adam (a.s.) and his wife Eve that they should never fall to the guile of Satan because he has taken their enmity to heart and that they must never stretch their hands to the special rights of the owners of that heavenly tree. On the other hand, Satan who had taken a beating due to his jealousy and misplaced superiority complex decided to deceive Adam (a.s.) from this very route and hatched a plot to enter Paradise. Allah also wanted to show Satan and other angels the humility, purity and greatness of Adam (a.s.) by placing him in the earth and examining him. Therefore, He did not expose the mischief of Satan and allowed him access to Adam (a.s.) and his wife. Satan approached them in the garb of a friend, disguised in a way that they could not recognize him. He advised them that their prosperity and goodness lied in eating from the prohibited tree and that this act would lead them to better recognition, superiority, eternity and a number of other benefits. He even swore by the Might of Allah that he was not lying and did not wish for them anything but their well being. As an oath on Allah the Great was highly revered in the eyes of Adam (a.s.), he could not believe that anybody would take a false oath in the name of Allah. Therefore, due to his pure being and the respect that he accorded to an oath on Allah, he fell to the deception of Satan and in that one moment, he forgot the command of Allah the Almighty. As a result, he and his wife stretched their hands towards the prohibited tree and ate from it. It was here that Allah told him that you have done injustice unto yourself, therefore, along with the Satan, go out from My Paradise to the earth. I will give you respite in it and test you like its previous inhabitants.
Seeing Adam (a.s.) and his wife expelled from Paradise, Satan became immensely joyous but was unaware that unlike him, Adam (a.s.) and his wife would regret their mistake, repent and seek forgiveness from Allah.
8) We believe that Hazrat Adam (a.s.), after his descent on the earth, regretted his mistake, although his disobedience of Allah was not deliberate and he had forgotten Allah’s advice just for a few seconds. Moreover, he also relied upon the false oath that Iblis took in the
name of Allah’s Might. Notwithstanding all these pretexts, Adam (a.s.) blamed himself for his mistake and considered himself as guilty in front of Allah. Whereas Satan, in direct contrast, blamed Allah for his misdeed and despite all the bounties that Allah had conferred on him, accused Him of being unjust (Al-Hijr [15:39] ; Al-A’raf [7:16]). For years together, Hazrat Adam (a.s.) cried and repented, thereby becoming a role model for his descendants that whenever they commit a sin or error, they should feel ashamed, reprimand themselves, wail in front of their Lord with utmost humility and seek forgiveness, pardon and mercy from Him. After years of repentance and seeking forgiveness, finally Allah the Almighty accepted his pleas in a place called Mecca near a house called as Ka’bah and once again made him the recipient of His special bounties. Ka’bah was the first house that Allah had ordained for Adam (a.s.) and his generations to follow that they may worship Him and repent near it. Therefore, it became known to one and all that Adam (a.s.) was more honorable and worthy than Iblis and Allah the All-Knowing was perfectly justified in driving Iblis out and choosing Adam (a.s.) as His caliph.
9) We believe that although Satan did succeed in causing the exit of Adam (a.s.) and his progeny from Paradise, he cannot make him (Adam (a.s.)) and the other sincere servants of Allah as His enemies. Therefore, he always had to bite dust in front of the chosen ones from Adam’s (a.s.) progeny and hence, his malice against them increased by the day. He is always on the lookout for us. He does not show himself unto us to prevent us from recognizing him and being alert from him. With the help of the extraordinary power that he possesses, he whispers in our hearts incessantly. Most of the mischievous and impure thoughts that invade our minds are from him. He invites us from within towards sins, worship of this world and urges us to ignore the commands and prohibitions of Allah the Almighty. He gives us good news of a great fortune, beautifies our vices for us and justifies them. Whenever we desire to remember Allah and converse with Him (especially during Salat, which is the most extraordinary and best opportunity to gain Divine Proximity), Iblis deviates our thought, mind and heart from Allah and makes us busy in some other things. We must consider him as a common enemy of ourselves and of the entire humanity. Also, we must know that the accursed Iblis is always striving to distance us, the children of Adam (a.s.), from the right path and to destroy us. Allah the Almighty has informed us plainly that Iblis is our enemy, therefore we too must bear enmity against him.

إِنَّ ٱلشَّيْطَٰنَ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ فَٱتَّخِذُوهُ عَدُوًّا

“Surely, the Satan is an enemy for you, then take him as an enemy.”
Fatir [35:6]
10) We believe that Allah the Almighty has given Iblis ample and plentiful respite. He uses all the power at his disposal to deviate mankind and for the majority (except the sincere servants of Allah), he has had a very high success rate. He is so powerful that none from the progeny of Adam (a.s.) can extricate himself from his clutches on his own and without Allah’s help. He deceived even Hazrat Adam (a.s.), despite his elevated position and greatness, then what can be said about us, who are relatively miniscule and insignificant when compared to Adam (a.s.). But, Allah the Almighty, in exchange of this tremendous power that he has given to Satan, has also granted us humans, two extraordinary

A) Possibility of Seeking Help from and Refuge in Allah.

The power, machinations, and conspiracies of Satan pales in comparison to the Power of Allah and His assistance. There is only one way to dominate Satan and that is, man seeks refuge in Allah and His
impregnable and strong sanctuary. That is, first and foremost, he must always be engrossed in doing استعاذه :Seek Refuge and secondly, he must recognize the sanctuary of Allah in all times. We believe that Allah has provided man with a strong shelter and impregnable asylum from the evil designs of Satan. Today, in our times, this shelter and refuge is the holy and chosen existence of Hazrat Mahdi (a.t.f.s.). We believe that only he can overpower the whisperings of the Satan who recognizes his Imam as the sole sanctuary from the side of Allah and seeks his mediation.

B) Possibility of Repentance

In lieu of the extraordinary power granted to Iblis by Allah, He has kept open the door of repentance for mankind till its last breath. He has also
promised, “I will forgive all those who have been deceived by Satan, provided they confess to their sins and return to Me.” Thereafter, to make us humans aware of the method of repentance and return towards Allah, He made our father Adam (a.s.) as our role model and gave him the tawfeeq of performing a complete repentance. We believe that Allah the Almighty accepted the repentance of Hazrat Adam (a.s.) only when he prayed to Allah with some special words. These words were the names of the five infallible personalities (Muhammad, Ali, Fatima, Hassan and Husain- peace be on them all), who are the most honorable children of Adam (a.s.). Yes, Allah will accept the repentance of those who implore Him for the sake of these great personalities and the special rights and position which they enjoy before Allah.

1 “And We desire to show favor to those who were abased in the land, and to make them imams, and to make them the heirs”

2 “Allah has promised those of you who have faith and do righteous deeds that He will surely make them successors in the earth, just as He made those who were before them successors, and He will surely establish for them their religion which He has approved for them, and that He will surely change their state to security after their fear, while they worship Me, not ascribing any partners to Me. Whoever is ungrateful after that—it is they who are the transgressors”

3 Except the ‘face of Allah’, which does not belong to the species of the material world and its comprehension is beyond our inadequate perception.

4 “We shall set up just scales on the Day of Resurrection, and no soul will be wronged in the least. Even if it be the weight of a mustard seed We shall produce it and We suffice as reckoners”

5 Imam Kazim (PBUH) says to Hisham ibn al-Hakam: “O Hisham, Allah has placed two kinds of authority over man. The apparent and manifest authority and the internal and hidden authority. The prophets and messengers are the apparent and manifest authorities and intelligence (intellect) is the hidden and internal authority” Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter 1, Hadith 12.

6 It worth mentioning excerpts from a prayer by Imam Sajjad (P.B.U.H.) called Abu Hamza al-Thumali:
O’ Master! I am the small one whom You raised!
And I am the ignorant whom You educated ; And I am the misled whom You guided,
And I am the humiliated one whom You elevated ; And I am the frightened one whom You safeguarded,
And the hungry one whom You fed ; And the thirsty whose thirst You quenched,
And the naked whom You dressed ; And the poor whom You made wealthy,
And the weak whom You strengthened ; And the insignificant whom You honored,
And the sick whom You cured ; And the beggar whom You provided charity to,
And the sinner whose secret You have protected ; And the wrong doer whom You aided,
And I am the little (creature) You made more significant ; And the oppressed whom You made victorious,
And I am the escapee whom You gave refuge to.”

7 It is worth mentioning that about one fifth of the Quran talks about hereafter.